ASSESSING THE CLINICAL APPLICABILITY OF MALNUTRITION BIOMARKERS
Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, MD, PhD, MPH, FACP, FAAP, FAHA, FASN, FNKF
University of California Irvine, School of Medicine
Irvine, California, USA
In moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD), protein-energy wasting (PEW) and inflammation, together also known as the malnutrition-inflammation-cachexia syndrome (MICS), are the strongest predictors of mortality and signal the urgent need for comprehensive but practical nutrition assessment tools. The Malnutrition-Inflammation Score (MIS) is a practical, low cost tool to assess the nutritional status of patients with CKD, and is a useful metric for risk stratification in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. The MIS can predict 5-year mortality in MHD patients. Controlled trials of nutrition and anti-inflammatory interventions that can improve MIS are needed to examine the potential of improvement in CKD survival.